Genetic variations in the Orf7a protein of SARS-CoV-2 and its possible role in vaccine development
The recurrent mutations in Orf7a of SARS-CoV-2 provide a deep understanding of its role in the virus–host interactions. Findings of our study revealed that the predicted epitopes could be promising candidates for a vaccine against COVID-19 infections.....
Docking studies, synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity activity of new bis-chalcones derivatives
The cytotoxic activity of all the synthesized compounds was evaluated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Compounds 5 and 6 were found to have IC50 values of about 20 µM. These compounds are good candidates to be selected for further studies to develop anticancer drugs...
Roles of hypoxia in tumor progression and novel strategies for cancer treatment
T., N., T.,
H., N., M.,
N. T. Y.
Summary: The metabolic process of normal cells in general and of cancer cells in particular requires an important moleculeâ€”oxygen. In tumors, the oxygen level tends to decrease gradually from the outer layers to the central core, leading to a condition termed ``hypoxia.'' Changes in the oxygen level modify the signaling pathways and metabolic activities of cancer cells. Basically, tumor development is divided into three stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. Among them, the effects of hypoxia are most evident during tumor progression. In this review, we summarize previous findings on the mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced alterations in the expression of genes and proteins associated with hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which play a central role in the development of malignancy in many types of cancer. We also present the latest evidence on HIF-targeted cancer treatment that yields positive outcomes in vitro and in vivo.
Expression of epithelialâ€“mesenchymal transition markers in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: A cross-sectional study
Summary: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Epithelialâ€“ mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenomenon related to carcinogenesis, which is characterized by morphological changes from neoplastic epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells, resulting in increased motility and invasiveness of neoplastic cells. To observe the expression of three EMT markers (cytokeratin 19 [CK1]), vimentin, and Ras homolog gene family member C [RhoC]) in individuals with a normal cervix, patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and determine the association with the histological grade and clinical/radiological stage of cervical cancer.
Recent findings on molecular alterations in IDH1, TP53, and CASP9 in gliomagenesis
Summary: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations have been the focus of glioma-related neuroscience research since the discovery of the gene in 2008. IDH1 has been identified as a key enzyme in cellular metabolism, epigenetic regulation, redox regulation, and DNA repair and is thought to be one of the most important factors in gliomagenesis. IDH1 mutations cause neomorphic activity, resulting in an increase in 2-hydroxyglutarate production and a decrease in NADPH production. Emerging research has identified IDH1 mutations in the vast majority of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas, but these mutations are extremely uncommon in primary glioblastomas. Other genetic defects appear to play a significant role in glioma initiation and progression. In this study, we review recent findings on oncogenic alterations in IDH1, TP53, and CASP9 to identify any potential molecular correlations and interrelationships that lead to gliomagenesis. The roles and molecular interactions of these glioma-associated genes in gliomagenesis are elucidated. In addition, we highlight studies on stem cell modeling in glioma-associated genetic alterations that have been conducted over the past several decades.
Overview of the advantages and disadvantages of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy in the tumor microenvironment
Summary: T cells genetically modified to express a receptor that identifies a specific antigen, known as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, have led to advancements in the treatment of hematological malignancies and the tumor microenvironment. CAR-T cells target the origin of tumors on the vascular side of inflammatory cytokines where the tumor microenvironment forms and block immunosuppressive checkpoints. The efficacy of CAR-T cell treatment remains controversial because its toxicity damages organ structures, including neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, and muscular structures, and causes fatal abnormality. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of CAR-T cell immunotherapy in the tumor microenvironment.
Association of the International Academy of Cytology category with the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System score in relation to the diagnostic accuracy for breast lumps
Summary: Breast lumps are the commonest patient presentation in breast clinics. Initial diagnostic approaches, such as mammography and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), help in prompting proper preoperative diagnosis and planning management.
Comprehensive diagnostic approach and real-life treatment strategy in a Vietnamese pedigree with familial protein S deficiency
Summary: Protein S is a glycoprotein essential in the regulation of blood coagulation. Familial protein S deficiency increases the risk of venous thromboembolism approximately 2- to 11-fold. Herein, we report this disorder in six members of a Vietnamese family among which three had thromboembolism, and the other three were asymptomatic. The protein S levels ranged from 10.1% to 24%, but we did not identify any PROS1 mutation. In one patient, a rare combination of protein C and S deficiency withPROC heterozygous c.565C>T (p.Arg189Trp) mutation was confirmed. Direct oral coagulation was predominantly selected for both treatment and prophylaxis, which yielded no thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events during long-term follow-up. The patients without overt clinical manifestations and those with minimized risk factors could be safely left untreated. The present family pedigree systematically illustrated a diagnostic approach and an integrated consideration for deploying various individualized treatment options.
Morin: a promising nutraceutical therapy for modulation of the NF-ÎşB/NOX-2/IL-6/HO-1 signaling pathways in paracetamol-induced liver toxicity
Summary: Paracetamol overdose potentially causes liver injury. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of morin against paracetamol overdose-induced hepatotoxicity.
Exosomes from human adipose-derived stem cells promoted the expression of angiogenic factors in endothelial cells
Summary: In regenerative medicine, human adipose tissueâ€“derived mesenchymal stem cells (hadMSCs) have exhibited tremendous promise as an efficient approach to chronic cardiovascular diseases. Noble effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been acknowledged to contribute to not only cellular engraftment and response to the site of injury but also paracrine action via the release of extracellular vesicles, notably exosomes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exosomes from hadMSCs (hadMSC-Exo) on the angiogenesis of endothelial cells.
Silver nanoparticles synthesized using Tualang honey ameliorate seizures, locomotor activity, and memory function in KA-induced status epilepticus in male rats
S., K., N.,
Summary: In recent years, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using natural products has been increasingly utilized in the biomedical field as a therapeutic approach for managing neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to determine the effects of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Tualang honey (THSN) on seizure activity and locomotor and memory functions in rats after kainic acid (KA) induction.
CAPE Improves Vanin-1/AKT/miRNA-203 Signaling Pathways in DSS-induced Ulcerative Colitis
Summary: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and other inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are common chronic, inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties, polyphenols are beneficial in the treatment of IBD. Caffeine acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been shown to have cytotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study focuses on the biochemical and molecular levels of the mode of action of CAPE in DSS-induced UC in rats.
Light-Chain Multiple Myeloma Presenting as a Bone Tumor in the Right Knee Joint â€“ a Case Report
Summary: Myeloma is the neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells. The peak age of onset of this disease is the seventh decade, and it is rare in young patients. Myeloma usually presents as lytic lesions in axial bones and rarely present as a joint disease. Usually, the tumor cells secrete monoclonal immunoglobulins. Non-secretory myeloma is a rare clinical entity. The incidence of light-chain myeloma is 16 â€“ 20 % among all multiple myelomas, and the more common subtype is the lambda chain type. We present a case of kappa light chain-type myeloma in a 29-year-old male with the presenting lesion in the right knee joint. The case is presented for its rarity due to the age of patient, presentation, and type of myeloma.
Art of using maintenance therapy in a patient with metastatic colon cancer harboring RAS-wt/BRAF V600E
Summary: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies with a high rate of liver metastasis, and various gene mutations have been proven to be involved in its pathogenesis. One of them is BRAF gene mutations, the most frequent of whichâ€”V600Eâ€”has a poor prognosis in patients with colon cancer.
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of psoriasis in Pakistan
Summary: Psoriasis is a skin inflammation characterized by papules and plaques on the skin surface. Almost 125 million people are affected by psoriasis worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of psoriasis.
The outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute stroke with and without intravenous injection of tissue plasminogen activator
Summary: Stroke is a major health problem and leading cause of mortality worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the consequences of intravascular interventions in patients with acute ischemic stroke with and without intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) injection.
Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
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